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At the Beginning of the Universe, at the Big-Bang, was there only one first particule, the Particule Zero-One, which subdivided extremely rapidely to give other particules and the world began to expand?
The Beginning of the Universe is not a Physics subject, but a matter of speculations. Physics deals always with small systems; otherwise there would not be place for observers and their experimental equipment.
But the Big-Bang theory is a subject of Physics, it is an hypothesis; the zero-one particule is also another hypothesis...
If you roll the time back, then everything (including observers) will be placed in one point. No one would be able to establish clocs and length standards.
Problems with such a concept of the Big Bang (itself probably a badly coined expression) are: What exactly is a particule, in particular this mysterious initial one? Where does it come from? The very concept of such a "particule" seems to imply that there is an "outside" of the particule, because one tends to picture a tiny sphere against a canvas of empty something (which something cannot be space-time, as this should be inside the particule). My understanding is that the universe did not start in time, but together with time: space-time and its metric, which latter can be used to define the proper time of an observer, are within the universe and subject to its expansion (Robertson-Walker-Friedmann-Lemaitre).
I personally find this very nice: https://arxiv.org/abs/1803.08930 (Boyle et al, Big Bang, CPT and neutrino dark matter). The issue of a "start" appears not to be so relevant there.
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