If basic symmetry and homogeneity assumptions about the Universe hold, then yes, all massless *real* particles (see Anna V's answer for virtual particles must travel at a universal constant $c$, the speed of a massless particle, in all frames of reference.

Given these basic symmetry and homogeneity assumptions, one can derive the possible co-ordinate transformations for the relativity of inertial frames: see the section "From Group Postulates" on the Wikipedia Page "Lorentz Transformation". (Also see my summary here). Galilean relativity *is* consistent with these assumptions, but not uniquely so: the other possibility is that there is some speed $c$ characterizing relativity such that $c$ is the same when measured from all frames of reference. Time dilation, Lorentz-Fitzgerald contraction and the impossibility of accelerating a massive particle to $c$ are all simple consequences of these other possible relativities.

So now it becomes an experimental question as to which relativity holds: Galilean or Lorentz transformation? And the experiment is answered by testing *how speeds transform between inertial frames*. Otherwise put, the experimental question is *are there any speeds that are the same for all inertial observers?*. The question is not about measuring the *values* of any speed, but rather, how they transform. Now of course we know the answer: the Michelson Morley experiment found such a speed, the speed of light. So there are *two* conclusions here: (1) Relativity of inertial frames is Lorentzian, not Galilean (which can be thought of as a Lorentz transformation with infinite $c$) and (2) light is a massless particle, because light is observed to go at this speed that transforms in this special way.

Notice that at the outset of this argument we mention nothing about particles or any particular physical phenomenon (even though special relativity's historical roots were in light). It follows that, if $c$ is experimentally observed to be finite (i.e. Galilean relativity does not hold), then the specially invariant speed is unique: it can only be reached by massless particles and there can't be more than one such $c$ - the Lorentz laws are what they are and are the only ones consistent with our initial symmetry and homogeneity assumptions. So if we observed two different speeds transforming like $c$, this would falsify our basic symmetry and homogeneity assumptions about the World. No experiment gives us grounds for doing that.

This is why all massless particles have the same speed $c$.

Incidentally, if we confine massless particles, *e.g.* put light into a perfectly reflecting box, the box's inertia increases by $E/c^2$, where $E$ is the energy content. This is the mechanism for most of your body's mass: massless gluons are confined and are accelerating backwards and forwards all the time, so they have inertia just as the confined light in a box did. Likewise, an electron can be thought of as comprising two massless particles, tethered together by a coupling term that is the mass of the electron. The Dirac and Maxwell equations can be written in the same form: the left and right hand circularly polarized components of light are uncoupled and therefore travel at $c$, but the massless left and right hand circular components of the electron are tethered together. This begets the phenomenon of the Zitterbewegung - whereby an electron can be construed as observable at any instant in time as traveling at $c$, but it swiftly oscillates back and forth between left and right hand states and is thus confined in one place. Therefore it takes on mass, just as the "tethered" light in the box does.

This post imported from StackExchange Physics at 2014-06-04 11:34 (UCT), posted by SE-user WetSavannaAnimal aka Rod Vance