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The proton mass can be calculated from lattice QCD to 1% accuracy; see Physical Nucleon Properties from Lattice QCD. A survey paper by Fodor and Hoelbling, Light Hadron Masses from Lattice QCD, discusses the state of the art of hadron mass prediction from lattice QCD. (also to 1% accuracy). For the meson spectrum, see Toward the excited isoscalar meson spectrum from lattice QCD. Extrapolation to physical parameter values, a lot of attention to detail, and a lot of computer time are needed to make this work.
Nonlattice techniques for mass prediction of mesons and hadrons include the Schwinger-Dyson equations; see, e.g., Masses of ground and excited-state hadrons.
so what's the question?
@JiaYiyang it is strictly speaking not a question, as it is the first entry in our new category (currently) called "Recomendations", dedicated to present (reading) material of interest to the community. See also Arnold's corresponding Meta announcement and the topmost link in the News part of the right side bar.
@Dilaton, got it, thanks for the explanation.
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