Extract of a manuscript submitted by Mahmoud Nafousi
11) The geometry of the space particles (SP) and the creation of the gravitational force.
How do we explain Gravity at the micro and macro levels?
The search for an explanation to the meaning of gravity is still ongoing. Newton described it as a gravitational pull between two objects in direct relations to their mass and in reverse relationship to the square distance between them. This gravitational pull is measured in terms of the weight of the objects. An astronaut in space will be weightless while his mass is the same as on earth. Einstein on the other hand defined gravity as a result of the distortion in the curvature of fabric of space-time according to his general theory of relativity. Still more recent theories of gravity explain the phenomenon in terms of particles and waves. String theory states that particles called “gravitons” (have never been observed) causes objects to be attracted to one another similar to the role played by virtual photons. Other theories speak of the existence of gravitational waves generated when an object is accelerated by an external force. They are in fact ripples in the curvature of spacetime generated due to certain gravitational interactions and propagate as waves outward from their source at the speed of light. The Singularities and Space Particles Theory speculates that gravitational waves transport energy as gravitational radiation, a form of radiant energy similar to electromagnetic radiation. The existence of gravitational waves have been confirmed in 2016.
The Loop quantum gravity theory merges quantum mechanics and general relativity. It is a theory of discrete quantised units of space time because, according to general relativity, gravity is a manifestation of the geometry of spacetime. It is the leading competitor to string theory. The main output of the theory is a physical picture of granular space. The granularity is a direct consequence of quantisation. Here, it is space itself that is discrete. In other words, there is a minimum distance possible to travel through it. More precisely, space can be viewed as an extremely fine fabric or network "woven" of finite loops. These networks of loops are called spin networks. The evolution of a spin network over time is called a spin foam. The predicted size of this structure is the Planck length, which is approximately 10−35 meters. According to the theory, there is no meaning to distance at scales smaller than the Planck scale. Therefore, the Singularities and Space Particles Theory predicts that not just matter, but space itself, has an atomic structure..
So, it is safe to say that our thought experiments regarding the existence of SP are in line with many aspects of the Loop Quantum Gravity. Referring to the above literature, we can speculate that Gravity at the micro level is nothing but the manifestation of the bending and twisting of the space particles as they interact with the Fermion Particles, in particular the Quarks due to their non-integer charges. As each Quark has a total of six spinners made of positive and negative charges, their 6 different combinations and permutations (within the nucleus of each Quark) are responsible for the creation of the strong force confinement. The creation of the confinement provided the answer to the theoretical 6 dimensions predicted by the String (M) theory. As these micro dimensions are created, the shrinkage and distortion in the hexagonal geometry of the space particles manifest itself as the change in the curvature of the fabric of space at the subatomic level, hence gravity.
Using this line of thinking, we can conclude that Gravity at the macro level is nothing but the cumulative shrinkage and distortions in the curvature of the fabric of space affected by the total atoms which make up the mass of the object in question. This is what make gravity between two objects proportional to their mass and in reverse relationship with the square distance between them.
We have seen that all matters are nothing but a manifestation of the total excitation of the energy fields that permeate throughout spacetime generated by the interactions of the Fermion particles making up the objects with the relevant SP. These energy field excitations are responsible for the creation of mass and also responsible for the curvature of spacetime. This curvature/ distortion is referred to as the mass gravitational field. So, gravitational attractions between two object exist whenever their gravitational fields interact with each other. This interaction leads some of the energy making up the excitation fields of the relevant masses to flow between them. This flowing energy is what is termed as gravitons. It is responsible for the gravitational attractions between objects in the same way as virtual photons are responsible for the magnetic attractions. As to the creation of Gravitational waves, the movement of massive objects at a very high speed lead to measurable disturbances in the fabric of space, as some SP go back to their Hexagon geometry while others assume the excited state required for the continuous manifestation of the moving mass. We speculate that gravity is the weaker of the 4 forces due to the absences of any role played by the spinners.
If Gravity is the associated with the very existence of atoms, i.e. the creation of the observable mass and volume, then it is unthinkable to neutralise gravity. Without gravity, the cosmic dust would have not gathered to form stars and planets. However, one question remain valid. If gravity is the result of the shrinkage/ distortion in the fabric of space, and if gravitational attraction is the flow of graviton then is it possible to create some mechanism to block the movement of the graviton or to neutralise the distortions in the curvature of the fabric of space?